Texas Instruments

Back in the 1970's, you were either a TI person or an HP person. The two camps had irreconcilable differences, constantly eager to prove the superiority of their chosen brand of calculators. TI calculators, of course, had a major advantage: they were a lot cheaper. Which is probably one reason why they were more readily available in my native Hungary.

I admit: at the time I also preferred the "AOS" data entry method (algebraic entry with operator precedence) of TI calculators over HP's RPN. Today, I am no longer sure: RPN, once you get used to it, is a lot more efficient, especially when it comes to calculator programming.

Back in the late 70s, however, it was a TI-59 that I was dreaming about. Today, I have several; sadly, except for "New Old Stock" machines, their card readers have either failed or are about to do so, and they're a lot more difficult to repair than the card readers of HP calculators. Yet another point in favor of HP technology!

Keystroke Programmables

Like Hewlett-Packard's, Texas Instruments' first "electronic slide rules" were non-programmable machines, including the SR-50/SR-51 line of products, effective rivals to HP's HP-35 and HP-45. Shortly after the legendary HP-65, however, TI also introduced its first programmables: the SR-56, and the high-end SR-52, a calculator with magnetic cards and an I/O connector for an external printer unit. And now the race was on: for many years afterwards, TI and HP were leapfrogging each other with ever more impressive technological achievements.

Electronic Slide Rules

Texas Instruments was one of several early manufacturers who called their scientific calculators electronic "slide rules". The distinction was important. To an engineer of the 1960s, a calculator (mechanical or electrical) meant a digital device performing the four basic arithmetic functions; the values of transcendental functions were usually computed using printed tables or slide rules. High-end electronic calculators in the 1970s opened up a new frontier: portable calculating devices that went beyond the four arithmetic functions, and packed ever more of the functionality of the engineer's slide rule into a pocket-sized package.

- Model Type Display Programming model Programming features Memory Special functions
Texas Instruments SR-52SR-52Scientific  10+2 LED digits  Partially merged keystroke (224 program steps)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels, Indirect addressing  60(22) numbers  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Magnetic cards 
Texas Instruments SR-56SR-56Scientific  10+2 LED digits  Partially merged keystroke (100 program steps)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines  10 numbers  Trigonometrics, Exponentials 

The Ultimate LED Series

The second generation of TI calculators featured a machine that can easily be called the ultimate LED programmable calculator: the TI-59. This machine's prodigious amount of memory, magnetic card, solid state software modules, and printer interface made it a true marvel of its time.

- Model Type Display Programming model Programming features Memory Special functions
Texas Instruments TI-57TI-57Scientific  8+2 LED digits  Fully-merged keystroke entry (50 program steps)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels  8 numbers  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Standard deviation 
Texas Instruments TI-58TI-58Scientific  10(8+2) LED digits  Partially merged keystroke (480 program steps)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels, Indirect addressing  60(0) numbers  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Linear regression 
Texas Instruments TI-58CTI-58CScientific  10(8+2) LED digits  Partially merged keystroke (480 program steps)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels, Indirect addressing  60(0) numbers  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Linear regression, Continuous memory 
Texas Instruments TI-59TI-59Scientific  10(8+2) LED digits  Partially merged keystroke (960 program steps)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels, Indirect addressing  100(0) numbers  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Linear regression, Magnetic cards 

Low-end LED Programmables

Before the era of LED calculators has drawn to a close, we saw the birth of a new concept in programmable scientific calculators: that of a low-end machine, cheap in construction, with minimal programming capabilities.

- Model Type Display Programming model Programming features Memory Special functions
Texas Instruments MBAMBAFinancial  10(8+2) LED digits  Keystroke entry (32 program steps)    12(8) numbers  Exponentials, Linear regression, Financial 
Texas Instruments TI-42 MBATI-42 MBAFinancial  10(8+2) LED digits  Keystroke entry (32 program steps)    10(8) numbers  Exponentials, Linear regression, Financial 
Texas Instruments TI-51-IIITI-51-IIIScientific  8+2 LED digits  Partially merged keystroke (32 program steps)    10(8) numbers  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Linear regression 
Texas Instruments TI-55TI-55Scientific  8+2 LED digits  Partially merged keystroke (32 program steps)    10(8) numbers  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Linear regression 

TI-55 LCD Family

Among the first Texas Instruments programmable calculators with a liquid crystal display was a series of machines that built upon the earlier success of the TI-55 and the MBA. These machines were characterized by a clean keyboard layout and a very simple programming model, capable of storing only a few dozen program steps.

- Model Type Display Programming model Programming features Memory Special functions
Texas Instruments BA-54BA-54Financial  8(5+2) LCD digits  Keystroke entry (40 program steps)    5(0) numbers  Exponentials, Financial, Continuous memory 
Texas Instruments BA-55BA-55Financial  8(5+2) LCD digits  Keystroke entry (40 program steps)    5(0) numbers  Exponentials, Financial, Continuous memory 
Texas Instruments TI-53TI-53Scientific  8(5+2) LCD digits  Keystroke entry (32 program steps)    1 numbers  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Continuous memory 
Texas Instruments TI-55-IITI-55-IIScientific  8+2 LCD digits  Partially merged keystroke (56 program steps)    8(1) numbers  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Hyperbolics, Linear regression, Continuous memory, Unit conversions 
Texas Instruments TI-55-IIITI-55-IIIScientific  8+2 LCD digits  Partially merged keystroke (56 program steps)    8(1) numbers  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Hyperbolics, Linear regression, Continuous memory, Unit conversions 
Texas Instruments TI-56TI-56Scientific  8+2 LCD digits  Partially merged keystroke (56 program steps)    8(1) numbers  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Hyperbolics, Linear regression, Integration, Continuous memory, Unit conversions 

LCD Programmables

Other early LCD programmables offerred an increased amount of memory, but surprisingly (with the exception of the successors to the TI-57) the programming model remained primitive.

- Model Type Display Programming model Programming features Memory Special functions
Texas Instruments TI-57 LCDTI-57 LCDScientific  8+2 LCD digits  Fully-merged keystroke entry (48 program steps)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels  7(1) numbers  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Continuous memory 
Texas Instruments TI-57 LCD Constant MemoryTI-57 LCD Constant MemoryScientific  8+2 LCD digits  Fully-merged keystroke entry (48 program steps)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels  7(1) numbers  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Continuous memory 
Texas Instruments TI-57 IITI-57 IIScientific  8+2 LCD digits  Fully-merged keystroke entry (48 program steps)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels  7(1) numbers  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Continuous memory 
Texas Instruments TI-60TI-60Scientific  10(7+2) LCD digits  Keystroke entry (84 program steps)    12(1) numbers  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Hyperbolics, Linear regression, Integration, Continuous memory, baseN, Unit conversions 
Texas Instruments TI-60XTI-60XScientific  12 LCD characters  Formula programming (96 program steps)    12(0) numbers  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Hyperbolics, Linear regression, Fractions, Complex, Continuous memory, baseN, Unit conversions 
Texas Instruments TI-68TI-68Scientific  12 LCD characters  Formula programming (440 program steps)    55(0) numbers  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Hyperbolics, Linear regression, Solver, Integration, Complex, Continuous memory, baseN, Unit conversions, Constants 

"Galaxy" series

The "Galaxy" series represented a change in both appearance and design. Externally, they were characterized by a horizontal layout; internally, these machines were no longer TI-designed, for instance the chipset of the TI-66 was made by Toshiba.

- Model Type Display Programming model Programming features Memory Special functions
Texas Instruments TI-62 GalaxyTI-62 GalaxyScientific  10+2 LCD digits  Fully-merged keystroke entry (100 program steps)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels  10(1) numbers  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Linear regression, Continuous memory 
No Image AvailableTI-64N/A  LCD          
Texas Instruments TI-65TI-65Scientific  10+2 LCD digits  Fully-merged keystroke entry (100 program steps)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels  16(1) numbers  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Hyperbolics, Linear regression, Integration, Complex, Continuous memory, Real-time clock, baseN, Unit conversions, Constants 
Texas Instruments TI-66TI-66Scientific  10(8+2) LCD digits  Partially merged keystroke (512 program steps)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels, Indirect addressing  64(0) numbers  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Linear regression, Continuous memory 
Texas Instruments TI-67 GalaxyTI-67 GalaxyScientific  12 LCD characters  Formula programming (1536 bytes)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels  1536(0) bytes  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Hyperbolics, Linear regression, Solver, Integration, Fractions, Complex, Continuous memory, Constants 

High-end Programmables

At the highest end of TI's keyboard programmable product line are two notable machines: the TI-88 is a legendary unreleased model, whereas the TI-95, despite having the appearance of a BASIC programmable pocket computer, is in fact another high-end keystroke programmable.

- Model Type Display Programming model Programming features Memory Special functions
Texas Instruments TI-88TI-88Scientific  16 LCD characters  Keystroke entry (960 program steps)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels, Indirect addressing  120(0) numbers  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Linear regression, Continuous memory, Real-time clock, Sound 
Texas Instruments TI-95TI-95Scientific  16 LCD characters  Keystroke entry (1000 program steps)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels, Indirect addressing  250(0) numbers  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Linear regression, Continuous memory, baseN 

Handheld Computers

Like other manufacturers, Texas Instruments also made a few handheld computers; in TI's case, all were programmable in the BASIC language.

BASIC Programmables

Before the era of LED calculators has drawn to a close, we saw the birth of a new concept in programmable scientific calculators: that of a low-end machine, cheap in construction, with minimal programming capabilities.

- Model Type Display Programming model Programming features Memory Special functions
Texas Instruments CC-40CC-40BASIC Programmable  31 LCD characters  BASIC (8 kilobytes)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Indirect addressing  8(0) kilobytes  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Continuous memory 
Texas Instruments TI-74TI-74Scientific  31 LCD characters  BASIC (8 kilobytes)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels, Indirect addressing  8(0) kilobytes  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Hyperbolics, Linear regression, Continuous memory 
Texas Instruments TI-74STI-74SScientific  31 LCD characters  BASIC (8 kilobytes)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels, Indirect addressing  8(0) kilobytes  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Hyperbolics, Linear regression, Continuous memory 

Graphing Calculators

Presently, Texas Instruments is most famous for its highly successful line of educational graphing calculators, which became the de facto standard in many classrooms in North America and elsewhere. The high-end models, in particular the TI-89, give even Hewlett-Packard a run for their money, matching HP's top-of-the-line models in both features and quality.

Graphing Calculators

TI offers a variety of graphing calculators for all students from high school to college.

- Model Type Display Programming model Programming features Memory Special functions
Texas Instruments TI-73TI-73Graphing  96×64 LCD pixels  Formula programming (28 kilobytes)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels, Indirect addressing  28(0) kilobytes  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Hyperbolics, Linear regression, Graphing, Fractions, Continuous memory, Matrix, baseN 
Texas Instruments TI-80TI-80Graphing  64×48 LCD pixels  Formula programming (7 kilobytes)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels, Indirect addressing  7(0) kilobytes  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Hyperbolics, Linear regression, Graphing, Continuous memory, Matrix, baseN 
Texas Instruments TI-81TI-81Graphing  96×64 LCD pixels  Formula programming (2400 bytes)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels, Indirect addressing  2400(0) bytes  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Hyperbolics, Linear regression, Graphing, Continuous memory, Matrix, baseN 
Texas Instruments TI-82TI-82Graphing  96×64 LCD pixels  Formula programming (28 kilobytes)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels, Indirect addressing  28(0) kilobytes  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Hyperbolics, Linear regression, Graphing, Continuous memory, Matrix, baseN 
Texas Instruments TI-83TI-83Graphing  96×64 LCD pixels  Formula programming (28 kilobytes)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels, Indirect addressing  28(0) kilobytes  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Hyperbolics, Linear regression, Graphing, Solver, Integration, Continuous memory, Matrix, baseN 
Texas Instruments TI-83 PlusTI-83 PlusGraphing  96×64 LCD pixels  Formula programming (28 kilobytes)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels, Indirect addressing  28(0) kilobytes  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Hyperbolics, Linear regression, Graphing, Solver, Integration, Continuous memory, Matrix, baseN 
Texas Instruments TI-83 Plus SETI-83 Plus SEGraphing  96×64 LCD pixels  Formula programming (28 kilobytes)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels, Indirect addressing  24(0) kilobytes  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Hyperbolics, Linear regression, Graphing, Solver, Integration, Continuous memory, Matrix, baseN 
Texas Instruments TI-85TI-85Graphing  128×64 LCD pixels  Formula programming (28 kilobytes)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels, Indirect addressing  28(0) kilobytes  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Hyperbolics, Linear regression, Graphing, Solver, Integration, Continuous memory, Matrix, baseN, Unit conversions, Constants 
Texas Instruments TI-86TI-86Graphing  128×64 LCD pixels  Formula programming (96 kilobytes)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels, Indirect addressing  96(0) kilobytes  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Hyperbolics, Linear regression, Graphing, Solver, Integration, Complex, Continuous memory, Matrix, baseN, Unit conversions, Constants 

Advanced Graphing Calculators

TI's advanced graphing calculators feature a 16-bit processor, high resolution display, a powerful programming language capable of symbolic manipulation, Flash programmability, and a considerable amount of memory.

- Model Type Display Programming model Programming features Memory Special functions
Unconfirmed sightingTI-84 PlusGraphing  LCD pixels    Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels, Indirect addressing    Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Hyperbolics, Linear regression, Graphing, Continuous memory, Matrix, baseN 
Texas Instruments TI-84 Plus SETI-84 Plus SEGraphing  LCD pixels    Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels, Indirect addressing    Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Hyperbolics, Linear regression, Graphing, Continuous memory, Matrix, baseN 
Texas Instruments TI-89TI-89Graphing  160×100 LCD pixels  Formula programming (192 kilobytes)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels, Indirect addressing  192(0) kilobytes  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Hyperbolics, Linear regression, Graphing, Solver, Integration, Fractions, Complex, Symbolics, Continuous memory, Matrix 
No Image AvailableTI-89 TitaniumGraphing  LCD pixels    Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels, Indirect addressing    Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Hyperbolics, Linear regression, Graphing, Symbolics, Continuous memory, Matrix, baseN 
Texas Instruments TI-92TI-92Graphing  240×120 LCD pixels  Formula programming (64 kilobytes)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels, Indirect addressing  64(0) kilobytes  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Hyperbolics, Linear regression, Graphing, Solver, Integration, Fractions, Complex, Symbolics, Continuous memory, Matrix 
Texas Instruments TI-92 PlusTI-92 PlusGraphing  240×120 LCD pixels  Formula programming (192 kilobytes)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels, Indirect addressing  192(0) kilobytes  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Hyperbolics, Linear regression, Graphing, Solver, Integration, Fractions, Complex, Symbolics, Continuous memory, Matrix 
No Image AvailableTI-92 IIGraphing  240×120 LCD pixels  Formula programming ( kilobytes)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels, Indirect addressing  kilobytes  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Hyperbolics, Linear regression, Graphing, Solver, Integration, Fractions, Complex, Symbolics, Continuous memory, Matrix 
Texas Instruments nspirenspireN/A  LCD          
Texas Instruments nspire CASnspire CASGraphing  320×240 LCD pixels  (16 megabytes)      Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Graphing, Symbolics 
Texas Instruments nspire CXnspire CXN/A  CLCD          
Texas Instruments Voyage 200Voyage 200Graphing  240×120 LCD pixels  Formula programming (192 kilobytes)  Conditionals, Branching, Subroutines, Labels, Indirect addressing  192(0) kilobytes  Trigonometrics, Exponentials, Hyperbolics, Linear regression, Graphing, Solver, Integration, Fractions, Complex, Symbolics, Continuous memory, Matrix 

Other Models

Texas Instruments models that were not yet added to any of the categories listed so far are shown below.

Variants/OEM Versions

Several Texas Instruments calculators were sold under the Tandy/Radio Shack store brand name.