PTK-1072

Datasheet legend
Ab/c: Fractions calculation
AC: Alternating current
BaseN: Number base calculations
Card: Magnetic card storage
Cmem: Continuous memory
Cond: Conditional execution
Const: Scientific constants
Cplx: Complex number arithmetic
DC: Direct current
Eqlib: Equation library
Exp: Exponential/logarithmic functions
Fin: Financial functions
Grph: Graphing capability
Hyp: Hyperbolic functions
Ind: Indirect addressing
Intg: Numerical integration
Jump: Unconditional jump (GOTO)
Lbl: Program labels
LCD: Liquid Crystal Display
LED: Light-Emitting Diode
Li-ion: Lithium-ion rechargeable battery
Lreg: Linear regression (2-variable statistics)
mA: Milliamperes of current
Mtrx: Matrix support
NiCd: Nickel-Cadmium rechargeable battery
NiMH: Nickel-metal-hydrite rechargeable battery
Prnt: Printer
RTC: Real-time clock
Sdev: Standard deviation (1-variable statistics)
Solv: Equation solver
Subr: Subroutine call capability
Symb: Symbolic computing
Tape: Magnetic tape storage
Trig: Trigonometric functions
Units: Unit conversions
VAC: Volts AC
VDC: Volts DC
Years of production:   Display type: Numeric display  
New price:   Display color: Red  
    Display technology: Light-emitting diode 
Size: 6"×3"×1" Display size: 8+2 digits
Weight: 8 oz    
    Entry method: Algebraic 
Batteries: 3×"AA" NiCd Advanced functions: Trig Exp Hyp Lreg Units 
External power: E-05 DPj adapter (4.5VDC 100mA)   Memory functions: +/-/×/÷ 
I/O:      
    Programming model: Keystroke entry 
Precision: 10 digits Program functions: Jump Cond  
Memories: 10 numbers Program display: Keycode display  
Program memory: 72 program steps Program editing: Overwrite capability  
Chipset: Commodore PR-100   Forensic result:  

PTK-1072 In 1978 or 1979, the Hungarian microelectronics company Híradástechnika began manufacturing an OEM version of the Commodore PR-100 programmable calculator. Until then, programmable calculators, privately imported, cost more than the average price of a new car in Hungary. With the PTK-1072, suddenly it was possible for a high-school geek like myself to acquire one. Wow!

But wait... here I was with my PTK-1072 and it couldn't do what my best friend's lousy non-programmable Commodore SR-4190R was capable of: it could not calculate the Gamma function.

Needless to say, in 1979 I had no access to resources such as the excellent book Numerical Recipes in C. However, I found another book on differential and integral calculus (A differenciál- és integrálszámítás elemei, by Pál Szász, Budapest, 1955) that contained an extensive discussion on the Gamma function.

As part of this discussion, the book provided a variation of the Gamma function's Maclaurin series:

\[2\ln\Gamma(1+x)=\ln\frac{1-x}{1+x}+\ln\frac{\pi x}{\sin\pi x}+(1-C)x+\sum\limits_{n=1}^\infty\left[\left(1-\sum\limits_{\nu=1}^\infty\frac{1}{\nu^{2n+1}}\right)\frac{x^{2n+1}}{2n+1}\right].\]

This approximation converges fairly quickly for $0.5\lt x\lt 1.5$.

$C$ is Euler's constant, defined as the infinite sum

\[\lim\limits_{N\rightarrow\infty}\left(\sum\limits_{n=1}^N\frac{1}{n}-\ln N\right)=0.577~215~664~901~532~860~607...\]

Values of this constant can be easily obtained from the literature. That is not the case for the remaining coefficients in this formula. My poor PTK-1072 ran for several weeks to obtain an approximation of \(\sum\limits_{\nu=2}^\infty 1/\nu^3\) to 8 digits of precision. In the end, I obtained the following values for the various coefficients:

\begin{align}x&=0.8455686582,\\

x^3&=-0.1347045888,\\

x^5&=-1.477110203\times 10^{-2},\\

x^7&=-2.38550782\times 10^{-3},\\

x^9&=-4.463095166\times 10^{-4},\\

x^{11}&=-8.985247346\times 10^{-5}.\end{align}

As it turns out, my calculations were not entirely accurate. Being equipped with a dual-processor Pentium-II workstation, I no longer find it problematic to calculate these coefficients to a high degree of precision. Whereas the PTK-1072 ran for weeks to add a sum of a few thousand values, I can add several million values in a matter of seconds. Here are my modern results:

\begin{align}x&=0.8455686702,\\

x^3&=-0.1347046021,\\

x^5&=-1.477110206\times 10^{-2},\\

x^7&=-2.385507823\times 10^{-3},\\

x^9&=-4.463095169\times 10^{-4},\\

x^{11}&=-8.985247348\times 10^{-5}.\end{align}

As I mentioned, the formula above can be used to obtain the logarithm of the Gamma function for arguments between 0.5 and 1.5. The function's value for other arguments can be calculated using the following relationship:

\[\Gamma(x)\Gamma(1-x)=\frac{\pi x}{\sin\pi x}.\]

With this and the recurrence relationship, it is now possible to calculate the Gamma function for any real argument. (I have never investigated whether the Maclaurin series can be used for any complex argument.)

Sadly, I no longer have my old notebook with my PTK-1072 programs. However, I do have a TI-59 magnetic card, still readable, that contains a variant of my Gamma function algorithm. From this, I was able to reconstruct my original program, shown below.

Note that you need to set memory registers 4-9 to the values specified before running the program (the coefficients shown in the listing below are the ones I calculated in 1979.) To enter values with ten-digit precision, use key sequences like this one:

0.1347045 +/− − 8.88 EE 8 +/− = M 4

In order for the program to work properly, you must first set the calculator to radian mode by pressing F rad. To use the function, enter the argument then hit R/S.

M4 = −.1347045888
M5 = −1.477110203e−2
M6 = −2.38550782e−3
M7 = −4.463095166e−4
M8 = −8.985247346e−5
M9 = 0.8455686582

85 00	−
81 01	1
74 02	×
51 03	M
91 04	0
95 05	=
51 06	M
81 07	1
74 08	×
52 09	MR
62 10	8
84 11	+
52 12	MR
61 13	7
74 14	×
52 15	MR
81 16	1
84 17	+
52 18	MR
73 19	6
74 20	×
52 21	MR
81 22	1
84 23	+
52 24	MR
72 25	5
74 26	×
52 27	MR
81 28	1
84 29	+
52 30	MR
71 31	4
74 32	×
52 33	MR
81 34	1
84 35	+
52 36	MR
63 37	9
74 38	×
52 39	MR
91 40	0
84 41	+
64 42	(
45 43	π
74 44	×
52 45	MR
91 46	0
75 47	÷
55 48	x-y
22 49	sin
74 50	×
64 51	(
81 52	1
85 53	−
52 54	MR
91 55	0
65 56	)
75 57	÷
64 58	(
52 59	MR
91 60	0
84 61	+
81 62	1
65 63	)
65 64	)
32 65	ln
95 66	=
21 67	F
32 68	ex
35 69	√